Illustrate Metástasis Cutáneas Perianales De Adenocarcinoma Colorrectal inside Perianal Cancer
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What is Anal Cancer
The anus is the opening of the body at the lower end of the entrail. Anal canal is the tube that connects the bottom of the large bowel( rectum) and anus to the outside figure. As food is grasped, proceeds from the gut into the small intestine. Then passage from the small intestine into the large bowel( colon ). The gigantic bowel absorbs liquid and liquid from grasped meat. The remaining waste matter through the bowels after known as feces or stool. Feces are stored in the rectum, the final 6 inches of the digestive organization. From there, the latter are out of the body through the anus as a bowel movement.
Anal canal is about an inch and a half long. The inside stratum( called the mucosa) consists of various types of cadres. Learn a little about these cells helps in understanding those kinds of cancer that develops in different parts of the anal canal. Glands and canals( tubes producing from the glands) are found under the mucosa. These glands realise mucus, which acts as a lubricant.
Anal canal runnings from the rectum to the anal edge( where the canal meets the outer skin on the anus ). About midway down the anal canal is the dentate line, which is where most of the anal glands empty into the anus.
Cells in the anus( the rectum) and part of the canal near the anus rectum determined like a small article. Most cells near the middle-of-the-road of the anal canal and around the dentate order determined like a cube and are called transitional cadres. This area is called the transition zone. Below the dentate pipeline are flat( squamous) cadres. At the anal periphery, squamous cadres lower anal canal blends with the skin outside the anus. This barks all over the anal verge( called perianal bark or anal perimeter) is also composed of squamous cells, but also contains sweat glands and “hairs-breadth” follicles; lining of the anus is not lower. Anal canal cancer( above the anal periphery) and cancers of the anal boundary( below the anal border) are gave very differently.
Anal canal is surrounded by a sphincter, which is a circular muscle that procreates dirt from coming out relaxing during defecation.
Many types of tumors can develop in the anus. Not all tumors are cancerous- a harmles( non-cancerous ). There are also some growth originating as harmless but more experience can develop into cancer. This is called a pre-cancerous position. This section examines all types of abnormal rise.
Benign tumors( non-cancerous) anal
Polyps: Polyps are small, bumpy, or mushroom-like emergences that develop on the mucosa or just under it. There are various sorts, depending on the cause and location.
Inflammatory polyps originate due to inflaming from injury or infection.
Lymphoid polyps are caused by an overgrowth of the lymph tissue( which falls within the immune plan ). Small nodules of lymph material in the bottom coating are frequently present in the anus.
Hypertrophied anal papillae are harmless emergences of connective material covered by squamous cells. They are just regular papillary magnification, which is a small crease of mucous found in the dentate indication. Hypertrophied anal papilla too called fibroepithelial polyps.
Skin labels: Skin labels are benign rises of connective tissue covered by squamous cadres. Skin tags are often mistaken for hemorrhoids, but “well indeed hemorrhoids.
Condylomas: Condylomas( also called lumps) are the emergence occurring outside the anus and lower rectum below the dentate line. Sometimes condylomas can be found really above the dentate pipeline. They are caused by infection with human papilloma virus( HPV ).
Other harmless tumors: In rare cases, benign tumors can develop in other tissues of the anus. It includes:
Adnexal tumors- generally benign growth that began in the “hairs-breadth” follicles or sweat glands in the outer bark of the anus. This tumor stays in the perianal skin and does not grow into the anus.
Leiomyomas- evolving from smooth muscle cells
Granular cell tumors- develop from nerve cells and are composed of cadres that contain numerous tiny distinguishes( specks)
Hemangiomas- start in the cells stringing the blood vessels
Lipoma- arraying from overweight cells
Schwannomas- develops from the cadres that submerge nerve
Potentially pre-cancerous anal conditions
Some changes in the rectal mucosa are harmless in their very early stages, but may eventually develop into cancer. A common period for this condition is potentially pre-cancerous dysplasia. Some warts, for example, contains an area of dysplasia can progress to cancer.
Dysplasia occurs in the anus is also known as anal intraepithelial neoplasia( AIN) and the anal squamous intraepithelial lesions( SIL ). Depending on how the cells seem under a microscope, AIN( or anal SIL) can be is split into 2 radicals: low-grade and top-grade. Cells resemble low-grade AIN under normal cadres while the cell in top-grade AIN gazes much more normal. Low-grade AIN often disappear without treatment. It has a low chance of is transformed into cancer. High-grade AIN are less likely to leave without therapy. Plowed, high-grade AIN could eventually become cancerous, so it needs to be watched closely. Some an instance of high-grade AIN need to be treated.
Carcinoma in situ
Sometimes abnormal cadres on the surface blanket of the anus looks like cancer cadres but has still not been grown into one of the deeper seams. This condition is known as carcinoma in situ,( pronounced” in SY-too “), or CIS. Another epithet for this condition is Bowen’s disease. Some doctors see this as a very early chassis of anal cancer and others consider it the most advanced types of AIN, which is considered a pre-cancer but not a true cancer.
Invasive anal cancers
Squamous cell carcinomas: Most anal cancers in the United States are squamous cell carcinomas. These tumors originate from the squamous cells that string the anal boundary and most of the anal canal.
A cell of invasive squamous cell carcinomas has spread beyond the surface to the deeper seams of the finishing. Squamous cadre carcinomas of the anal boundary( perianal bark) dealt with at squamous cell carcinomas of the scalp elsewhere in the body.
Cloacogenic carcinomas( too called basaloid or transitional cadre carcinomas) is sometimes registered as a subclass of squamous cadre cancer. They develop in the transition zone, likewise “ve called the” cloaca. These cancers examine slightly different under a microscope, but they behave and are treated like other squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal.
Adenocarcinomas: A small number of rectal cancer known as adenocarcinomas. It can develop in cells that indication the upper portion of the rectum near the anus, or a gland pinpointed below the anal mucosa that release their secretions into the anal canal. This anal adenocarcinomas, treated in the same way as rectal carcinomas.
Adenocarcinomas can also start in apocrine glands( a type of sweat glands in the perianal scalp ). Paget’s disease is a type of apocrine gland carcinomas that spread through the surface mantle of the bark. Paget’s disease can affect the surface anywhere in the body, but most often feigns the surface of the perianal locality, vulva, or tit. This problem should not be confused with Paget’s disease of bone, which is a different disease.
Basal cell carcinomas: Basal cell carcinomas is a type of bark cancer that can develop in the perianal surface. These tumors are much more common in areas of skin exposed to sunlight, such as the face and paws, and account for only a small number of rectal cancer. They are often treated with surgery to remove the cancer.
Malignant melanoma: This cancer develops from cadres in the bark or anal lining that spawn the dark-brown pigment called melanin. Simply about 1% to 2% of anal cancers melanomas. Melanoma is much more common on sunbathe exposed areas of the body. If melanoma is found at an early stage( before they have grown penetrating into the scalp or spread to the lymph nodes) they can be removed by surgery and the mentality( prognosis) for long-term survival is good. But because they are hard to see, most anal melanomas are found at a last-minute theatre. If possible, the part tumor is removed by surgery. If all of the tumor can be removed, mending is probable. If the melanoma has spread too far to be removed perfectly, other managements may be given.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: It is a rare anal cancer is more commonly found in the gut or small intestine. When this was discovered in the early stages, they are removed by surgery. If the government had spread outside the anus, they can be treated with dose care.