Illustrate Metástasis Cutáneas Perianales De Adenocarcinoma Colorrectal with regard to Perianal Cancer
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What is anal cancer? – perianal cancer
The anus is the opening of the body at the lower part of the entrail. Anal canal is the tube that connects the bottom of the large entrail( rectum) and anus to the outside body. As menu is digested, surpass from the belly into the small intestine. Then circulate from the small intestine into the large bowel( colon ). The massive entrail absorbs sea and liquid from digested menu. The standing waste material through the entrails after known as feces or stool. Feces are stored in the rectum, the final 6 inches of the digestive system. From there, they were out of their own bodies through the anus as a bowel movement.
Anal canal is about an inch and a half long. The inside layer( called the mucosa) consists of various types of cadres. Learn a little about these cells helps in understanding the types of cancer that develops in different parts of the anal canal. Glands and ducts( tubes producing from the glands) are found under the mucosa. These glands procreate mucus, which acts as a lubricant.
Anal canal controls from the rectum to the anal boundary( where the canal converges the outer skin on the anus ). About midway down the anal canal is the dentate position, which is where the majority of members of the anal glands empty into the anus.
Cells in the anus( the rectum) and part of the canal near the anus rectum shaped like a small tower. Most cadres near the midriff of the anal canal and all over the dentate strand shaped like a cube and are called transitional cadres. This area is called the transition zone. Below the dentate row are flat( squamous) cadres. At the anal periphery, squamous cadres lower anal canal blends with the skin outside the anus. This surfaces all over the anal periphery( announced perianal surface or anal perimeter) is too composed of squamous cadres, but also contains sweat glands and mane follicles; lining of the anus is not lower. Anal canal cancer( above the anal border) and cancers of the anal margin( below the anal periphery) are gave very differently.
Anal canal is surrounded by a sphincter, which is a circular muscle that stirs grease from coming out unwinding during defecation.
Many types of tumors can develop in the anus. Not all tumors are cancerous- a benign( non-cancerous ). There are also some expansion beginning as harmless but more day can develop into cancer. This is called a pre-cancerous situation. This section discusses all types of abnormal growth.
Benign tumors( non-cancerous) anal
Polyps: Polyps are small, rutted, or mushroom-like rises that develop on the mucosa or exactly under it. There are various forms, depending on the cause and location.
Inflammatory polyps arise due to rash from injury or infection.
Lymphoid polyps are caused by an overgrowth of the lymph material( which falls within the immune arrangement ). Small nodules of lymph tissue in the bottom layer are typically present in the anus.
Hypertrophied anal papillae are harmless growings of connective tissue covered by squamous cells. They are just regular papillary expansion, which is a small crease of mucous found in the dentate wire. Hypertrophied anal papilla also announced fibroepithelial polyps.
Skin tags: Skin calls are harmless swellings of connective material covered by squamous cadres. Skin labels are often mistaken for hemorrhoids, but they are not certainly hemorrhoids.
Condylomas: Condylomas( also called warts) are the increment occurring outside the anus and lower rectum below the dentate line. Sometimes condylomas becomes available just above the dentate pipeline. They are caused by illnes with human papilloma virus( HPV ).
Other harmless tumors: In rare cases, harmless tumors can develop in other tissues of the anus. It includes:
Adnexal tumors- frequently harmless emergence that began in the mane follicles or sweat glands in the outer scalp of the anus. This tumor stays in the perianal surface and does not grow into the anus.
Leiomyomas- deriving from smooth muscle cells
Granular cadre tumors- develop from gut cells and are composed of the representatives of cells that contain numerous insignificant distinguishes( grains)
Hemangiomas- start in the cadres ordering the blood vessels
Lipoma- straying from fat cells
Schwannomas- develops from the cells that plaster nerve
Potentially pre-cancerous anal conditions
Some changes in the rectal mucosa are harmless in their very early stages, but may later develop into cancer. A common term for this condition is potentially pre-cancerous dysplasia. Some growths, for example, contains a zone of dysplasia can progress to cancer.
Dysplasia occurs in the anus is also known as anal intraepithelial neoplasia( AIN) and the anal squamous intraepithelial lesions( SIL ). Depending on how the cadres gaze under a microscope, AIN( or anal SIL) can be divided into 2 radicals: low-grade and top-grade. Cells resemble low-grade AIN under normal cadres while the cadre in top-grade AIN searches much more ordinary. Low-grade AIN often disappear without care. It has a low-pitched occasion of turning into cancer. Top-grade AIN are less likely to leave without treatment. Treated, top-grade AIN could eventually become cancerous, so it needs to be watched closely. Some an instance of high-grade AIN need to be treated.
Carcinoma in situ
Sometimes abnormal cells on the surface coating of the anus consider this to be cancer cells but not yet grown into one of the deeper mantles. This condition is known as carcinoma in situ,( pronounced” in SY-too “), or CIS. Another word for this condition is Bowen’s disease. Some physicians see this as the earliest form of anal cancer and others consider it the most advanced types of AIN, which is considered a pre-cancer but not a genuine cancer.
Invasive anal cancers
Squamous cell carcinomas: Most anal cancers in the United States are squamous cell carcinomas. These tumors originate from the squamous cells that row the anal boundary and most of the anal canal.
A cell of invasive squamous cell carcinomas has spread beyond the surface to the deeper mantles of the finishing. Squamous cell carcinomas of the anal margin( perianal skin) treated with squamous cell carcinomas of the surface elsewhere in the body.
Cloacogenic carcinomas( also called basaloid or transitional cell carcinomas) is sometimes listed as a subclass of squamous cadre cancer. They develop in transition periods zone, also “ve called the” cloaca. These cancers seem somewhat different under a microscope, but they behave and are given like other squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal.
Adenocarcinomas: A small number of rectal cancer known as adenocarcinomas. It can develop in cells that position the upper part of the rectum near the anus, or a gland pinpointed below the anal mucosa that exhaust their secretions into the anal canal. This anal adenocarcinomas, treated in the same way as rectal carcinomas.
Adenocarcinomas can also start in apocrine glands( a type of sweat glands in the perianal surface ). Paget’s disease is a type of apocrine gland carcinomas that spread through the surface seam of the skin. Paget’s disease can affect the surface anywhere in the body, but most commonly alters the surface of the perianal expanse, vulva, or heart. This necessity should not be confused with Paget’s disease of bone, which is a different disease.
Basal cell carcinomas: Basal cell carcinomas is a type of bark cancer that can develop in the perianal scalp. These tumors are much more common in areas of surface exposed to sunlight, such as the aspect and paws, and account for only a small number of rectal cancer. They are often treated with surgery to remove the cancer.
Malignant melanoma: This cancer develops from cells in the scalp or anal lining that compile the chocolate-brown pigment announced melanin. Exclusively about 1% to 2% of anal cancers melanomas. Melanoma is much more common on daylight uncovered parts of the body. If melanoma is found at an early stage( before they have grown penetrating into the scalp or spread to the lymph nodes) they can be removed by surgery and the prospect( prognosis) for long-term survival is good. But because they are hard to see, most anal melanomas are found at a last-minute stagecoach. If possible, the part tumor is removed by surgery. If all of the tumor can be removed, healing is probable. If the melanoma has spread too far to be removed altogether, other medications may be given.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: It is a rare anal cancer is more commonly found in the stomach or small intestine. When this was discovered in the early stages, they are removed by surgery. If the government had spread outside the anus, they can be treated with drug care.